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You can be granted temporary protection
If you were permanently residing in Ukraine, and you left the country to escape war from 24 February 2022 onwards, you may be entitled to temporary protection in any EU country. Temporary protection will last for at least one year, this may be extended depending on the situation in Ukraine. Rights under the Temporary Protection Directive include a residence permit, access to the labour market and housing, medical assistance, and access to education for children. Anyone residing legally in the EU also has a right to open a basic bank account. You will also have the right to open a basic bank account.
Ukrainian nationals residing in Ukraine before 24 February 2022, as well as their family members, displaced on or after 24 February 2022.
Stateless persons and nationals of other third countries who benefited from international protection or equivalent protection in Ukraine before 24 February 2022, as well as their family members, and have been displaced from Ukraine on or after 24 February 2022.
Non-Ukrainian nationals of third countries and stateless persons who can prove that they were legally residing in Ukraine before 24 February 2022 on the basis of a valid permanent residence permit issued in accordance with Ukrainian law, and who cannot return in safe and durable conditions to their country of origin are eligible for either EU temporary protection or adequate national protection, depending on the EU country they are in.
Ukrainian nationals, residing in Ukraine who have been displaced from Ukraine before 24 February 2022 or who found themselves outside Ukraine before that date (due to work, study, holidays, family or medical visits or other reasons).
Stateless persons or nationals of third countries, who were benefiting in Ukraine from international protection status or equivalent protection before 24 February 2022 and who have been displaced from Ukraine before 24 February 2022 or who found themselves outside Ukraine (due to work, study, holidays, family or medical visits or other reasons).
Stateless persons and nationals of third countries other than Ukraine, who were legally residing in Ukraine before 24 February 2022 on the basis of a valid permanent residence permit, but who are able to return safely to their country of origin. However, even in these cases the authorities may decide to grant you temporary protection. Alternatively, you may apply for international protection.
Stateless persons and nationals of third countries residing legally in Ukraine on a short-term basis before 24 February 2022, such as students and workers.
You are advised to contact the local representatives of your country of origin or national authorities of the country hosting you who will guide you through the process for your safe repatriation.
EU countries may decide to extend temporary protection to those persons who left Ukraine before 24 February 2022 as tensions increased or who found themselves in the territory of the EU (for example, on holidays or for work reasons) before that date and who, as a result of the armed conflict, cannot go back to Ukraine. For more information please contact the local authorities of the country where you are currently staying. Equally, if the EU country in question is not applying this discretion to grant you temporary protection status, you may always decide to apply for international protection.
You will still be granted access to the EU. Depending on your circumstances, you can apply for international protection or a legal migration status. The authorities may also decide to give you temporary protection. In principle, if you are safe in your country of origin and able to return , you can receive assistance to be repatriated to your country of origin. Please contact national authorities of the country where you are staying directly. You can also consult the EU Immigration Portal for more practical information and links to websites of relevant national authorities.
The right to temporary protection is “immediate” – meaning that, when a person wants to enjoy it, all s/he needs to do is to follow the instructions of the national authorities and to demonstrate to them the nationality, international protection status or equivalent protection status, residence in Ukraine or family link as appropriate, which give the right to temporary protection.
The national authorities of the EU country where you are present should inform you of your right to receive temporary protection. You should then inform them if you want to benefit from temporary protection, and follow their guidance.
You can consult the map below for information on national authorities responsible. This process will include the registration of your data and confirmation that temporary protection applies, and that none of the exclusion clauses are applicable in your situation.
Until 4 March 2023. If the reasons for granting temporary protection persist, your temporary protection will be automatically extended for a period of 6 months twice, that is until 4 March 2024. If the reasons for temporary protection persist beyond this date, the Commission may propose to the Council to extend the temporary protection by up to another year (that is 4 March 2025).
- residency rights
- access to housing
- social welfare assistance
- medical care, including mental health care and psychological support for children
- legal guardianship and safe placement for unaccompanied children and teenagers
- access to education and/or vocational training for children and teenagers
- access to the labour market (subject to EU countries’ labour market policies)
- access to banking services, for instance opening a basic bank account
- right to move to another EU country, before the issuance of a residence permit
- right to move freely in EU countries (other than the EU country of residence) for 90 days within a 180-day period after a residence permit in the host EU country is issued
You should also be aware that some EU countries offer wider rights than those listed above (e.g. free access to university education, etc.)
Yes. Once you receive temporary protection from an EU country, the rights derived from temporary protection are valid only in the EU country that granted you the residence permit. However, you still have the right to travel to other countries within the EU for 90 days within a 180-day period. See the below heading “Onward travel in the EU”.
You may also decide that you want to benefit from your rights in a different EU country from the one where you are currently residing. If you change your residence and move to another EU country, the residence permit in the first EU country will expire and your rights there will come to an end. The new host EU country should give you temporary protection and issue a new residence permit. It is important that you inform the authorities of the first EU country that you intend to move to another Member State.
In all EU Member States as well as in Switzerland, Norway, Liechtenstein and Iceland.
No. The right to temporary protection is in addition to the right to apply for international protection.
People eligible for temporary protection are, as a principle, able to lodge an application for asylum at any time. However, you should be aware that the purpose of being granted temporary protection is to reduce the need for you to apply immediately for international protection, as you will receive a residence permit as well as the associated rights. Moreover, the administrative formalities for temporary protection are reduced to minimum due to the urgency of the situation. In comparison, you should expect the procedure for examination of an application for international protection to be more complex due to current circumstances - it contains more steps and therefore takes more time to finish.
Where, after the examination of an application for international protection, asylum is not granted to a person also eligible for temporary protection, the person continues to benefit from temporary protection until it comes to an end. The right to temporary protection is in addition to the right to apply for international protection.
No, the international protection status determination is independent of the temporary protection. It follows a different procedure in front of the competent national authorities in the EU country and the outcome is determined on the basis of your individual, personal situation.
See also: Practical guide: Qualification for international protection
You are free to choose the EU country in which you enjoy temporary protection. However, you can benefit from temporary protection only in one EU Member State at a time. The rights connected to temporary protection are the same in every EU country bound by the Directive.
If you have registered in one country and decide to move to another, you need to inform the authorities of the country in which you are currently registered. The country where you move will then register you and offer you the temporary protection status and subsequent rights.
You can apply for international protection in the EU
Beneficiaries of temporary protection have the right to make an application for international protection (asylum) at any time.
If you choose to do so, your temporary protection may be suspended while you have the status and rights of an asylum applicant. If at the end of the examination your asylum application is rejected and the current temporary protection is still in place in the EU, your temporary protection status will revive.
You should inform yourself about which practices the Member State applies in order to decide whether to ask for international protection in addition to a residence permit showing your temporary protection status.
Inform national authorities in the Member State where you are present that you need international protection and follow their guidance. Information from interior ministries is available in the map on this page. See also: Practical guide on registration
Temporary Protection is designed to provide immediate protection to displaced persons, including those who have fled areas of armed conflict. While temporary protection is without prejudice to the right to apply for international protection, it may reduce the need to apply immediately for international protection as you will receive a residence permit as well as associated rights. The maximum duration of temporary protection is defined by EU law.
Asylum is an individual right, granted following a specific administrative and legal process that will determine whether you have a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion. Once granted, asylum can be withdrawn whenever new elements or findings arise indicating that there are reasons to reconsider its validity.
You should enquire with the national authorities of the EU country where you are present for more details regarding the specific rights, such as access to medical care, housing and the labour market, education for children and detention, under each protection regime. For general information about fundamental rights during the asylum procedure, please see here.
You might be entitled to a residence permit as a family member of an EU citizen or someone already legally residing in the EU, or as a student, researcher, trainee or worker. For more information about your options you should contact the competent authorities in the country where you are currently staying. You can also consult the EU Immigration Portal for more practical information and links to websites of relevant national authorities.
You can request repatriation assistance
Irrespective of your nationality and right to international protection, if you were living in Ukraine and have fled the war, you should be able to cross the EU border. If it is safe to return to your home country, you should contact relevant authorities or organisations to help you get back.
For repatriation assistance, you should contact the embassy/consulate of your country of origin in the EU country where you are currently staying. The national authorities in this country can also help you to contact your embassy/consulate in case you encounter problems and may offer assistance for your repatriation.